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Influences and Effects of Subliminal Advertising Consumption Decision Imprimir E-mail

 Revista Científica Visión de Futuro
Año 1 - N° 2 - Vol. 2
Julio a Diciembre de 2004
ISSN 1668 - 8708 versión en línea
ISSN 1669 - 7634 versión impresa

  Dra. Nilda C. Tañski

Universidad Nacional de Misiones
Facultad de Ciencias Económicas
Departamento de Administración
Ruta Nac. 12 Km. 7 1/2. Miguel Lanús - Misiones - Argentina

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One of the main factors that impact on consumption is advertising. Varied perceptions take place in consumers, which are constantly varying.
Not all receive the same message in the same way, and some perceive the same, giving them more importance than others.
For this research, this study was carried out in the city of Posadas (Province of Misiones - Argentina) to determine if the behaviour of managers, religious leaders, journalists and politician consumer segments, go through or do not go through mental processes, as influenced by communication strategies, to perceive the different trade market offers and to become consumers.
The economic weight of advertising, in these latter times, has reached great proportions, and produces very quick, and spectacular effects.
While products multiply and hundreds of new ones appear, the means also become prolific.
Adding to this the great social changes, it is easy to understand the complex task of advertisers in the modern world.
Technologically satellites, (communications via Internet), have been the most important communicational revolution of the end of the last century.
The future of advertising will not only be bound to its own creative capacity, but to the speed and certainty with which they adapt themselves to the new means, many of which still do not exist.
Not only will the new means be challenging, but also the new products, many which have not yet even been designed, nor thought of, will arise as demands of new and unheard of societies(1), of which the consumer becomes the leading character. .

KEYWORDS: Advertising, Consumption, Subliminal, Changes.

Characteristic of subliminal advertising

Advertising, is a key tool to reach the consumer, through it the image and trade mark capital, is created.
Due to that, immediate answers cannot be expected, since it can only be evaluated by the consumer in the long term as to the solidity and the attractiveness with which it has built a mental product. People possess subliminal knowledge, for example, when they show part of something, some letters of a word, insinuations in certain shapes, special sounds, etc; it is when imagination takes charge of overcoming the conscience threshold and carries out transmission.
The sub mind goes on keeping facts through time, which is overlooked by the conscience.
Using visual as well as oral stimuli, we explore the ways through which the sub mind is able to harbour those patterns, before conscious thoughts. The unconscious goes ahead of the conscious.
For that reason, the problem arises of not knowing what is, and what is not, the truly important thing. The situations facing a consumer, with such a number of options to choose from, and so much influence from the environment, permanently confuse him, it is because they do not have a clear idea as to how to conceptualise the differences, or which are the aspects of the available information that should be kept in mind, and which have to be ignored; they are overflowed by the great number of "offers" because they have not yet discovered through experience, what is the important thing in each case; which aspects should be put on in the centre and which in the conscience background.

Codes and languages influences

Man constantly perceives on the one hand events and things with physical and chemical characteristics, projected in the facts and in the ideas and on the other hand there are the ideas, that is to say what he himself forms regarding those facts and things.
We live simultaneously between the physical things and their mental images: we need both of them to think.(2)
Thus, when a product is presented through advertising, that same image will have several interpretations in the mind of each consumer who sees the message and each consumer will have a different consumer preference.
The tendency indicates that in just a short time, some products will be totally globalized, that is to say they will cross the frontiers with their promotions and advertising.
When transmitting an advertising expression, the codes and languages of the society, are generally considered
The transmission by means of advertising, even though highly positive, runs the risk of not being perceived by each one with the same impact. This sometimes happens due to what is unpublished in the message, unusual and its distinctive ideas.
Also in this way of transmitting, the minds and attitudes go towards communicators, capable of speaking several languages, it is not necessarily languages, one can have the ability to receive a message in one language and to decode it to another one.
The sub mind(3) of a person is responsible for the "arrival" of new ideas, be they appropriate or inadequate. Reason and logic act as the environment, examining each factor and making sure that they only live in the most qualified ones.
It is said that modern(4) man is able to communicate ideas with a vocabulary of approximately 4,000 words. Within that terms bank, each one of us possesses a language base of favourite words, which reflects the way that the brain and the mind are handled with the information.
But also, within a maternal language each speaker has his own base language. Way back in 1972, scientists, Richard Bandler and John Grinder, researched these personal languages and created what has been called Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or NLP.
In a generic way, almost everything in life and in nature is foreseeable, except the human being. Advertising message transmission through the media, should be carried out thinking on the target, because first of all, people should be understood, know what they want, so as to be able to orient the offer in a company, in any other way this communication would be a failure. You must guide that offer, so that consumption is carried out effectively.
Also, you cannot analyse as strategy, attitude, influence, presence, as sooner or later, it is the public who decides.
The untiring task of the professional communicator is to know intimately the society in which he lives, and to be nurtured by it, so as to be able to give consumers satisfactory answers.
People are endowed with true programs which interpret the world with the available information they have, and they do it with a with a data comparison system, which they have filed beforehand, these automatic systems would be those which provide a code that facilitates the handling in this world.

Mind Thresholds

We could say that there is a threshold in each human being, on the one hand the inferior one below which the sub mind is activated and another superior one, on which the information penetrates to the conscience.
The closer these two thresholds are, the closer the contact with the unconscious and the more complete will be the conscience awareness, of what happens in all the mind territories.

The further away the thresholds, the poorer the conscious awareness.

Everything perceived by human beings can be considered as symbolic, or functional or as both things. The symbolic meaning, works within the unconscious, be it verbally or not. The symbols imply rather what an object or situation means for each one. The symbolic meanings seem to constitute the base on which perception becomes something deeply significant.
In this way the information(5) to which you have access, on one hand is "decoded", i.e., interpreted according to one's own code. It is also incomplete, since you cannot accede to all the existent information in a given reality moment.
So, as to better solve the environment informational chaos, the mind carries out a selection process, developing systems "to extract from world only the needed information"(6)

Product Advertising

Consumption is carried out, when a client has decided for a certain product.
Many times that choice is influenced by advertising and makes things to be seen in a different way, products which before were not taken into account.
The following kinds of products(7) can be considered in the trade market.

1 - Physical product - functional
2 - Economic product
3 - Imaginary product

1 - The functional physical product - could be defined as a tool to solve problems. It is the product in itself, it is given by its chemical composition, weight, colour, aroma, size or shape and it fulfils functions or services for the user, cleaning, to ornament, to feed, to transport.
The functional products should present a group of functional attributes for example, the case of the virtues present in the Tetra Brik containers, so as to obtain differential advantages, in that case the paper of the packaging is considered as to the container practicability. The consumer, at the moment of acquiring the product, involves each one of these aspects.

2 - The economic product is the tool to measure the value of the functional product and of the imaginary product. Through the economic product profitability is pursued.

3 - The imaginary product is a subjective tool to satisfy the consumers' desires; it is the product seen from the demand as a symbolic promise.

Although the three products are important, the imaginary product is taken in a greater grade of analysis in this case.
The consumptions vary significantly considering the imaginary product, as the product that goes through the consumer's mind. First, the imaginary product is bought, and after choosing that product that promises them all that they want, consequently the functional product is acquired.
The consumer attends to his motivations for buying a product, the imaginary product becomes a promise that significantly exceeds the possibilities of the functional product, if the consumer is disappointed with that promise, he does not buy it again.
The three products are linked, and the relationship product - trade market, supposes an integration.
But, even the three being considered as very important and integrated, in this research, the imaginary product stands out, since the fundamental object of the study is to determine what he consumes, when he consumes, how much does he consume, why does he consume, for what reason does he consume and if he will consume that same product again.
All these questions are taken into account, when deciding what to purchase.
According to the analysis carried out in the city of Posadas about certain consumptions, it is observed that taking different segments and different consumption types, they all coincide that prior to that they carry out a "mental construction" of that which they will acquire.

Posadas, Capital of the Province of Misiones (Argentina) physical space for the sample study.
Population: 219,824
Surface: 29,801 Kil. 2
Founded : 25th March 1615. Main cities: Oberá - Apóstoles - Iguazú - Jardín América - Eldorado - L. N. Alem
Density: 26.5 Inhab. Per Kmt.2
Illiteracy: 8.3 %
Resources: Agricultural, Mining and Forestry.
Industry: YerbaMate (ilexp araguayensis) milling, Sawmills and Tourism
Thus we find out that 80% of the interviewed businessmen, suggest that when they consume a product they do so due to the perception they had of it. Taking into account the opinion of the religious leaders, 95% consider consumption in function of perceptions, there is the same opinion from 60% of the political sector and 70% of the journalist sector.

Religious Leaders

Aspects which influence the message

It is clear that when something is perceived, the mind intervenes, and it is consumed only if in that perception, through the order given by the mind, says yes.
To make a product known to another person, when emitting the advertising message, the receiver not only keeps in mind the product itself, but also to the whole environment that is part of that product, for example to perceive a good image of the product, but if this it is accompanied by an unpleasant voice, too quick a conversation, or a soft voice which loses itself, so as to highlight the feeling of inferiority or transmitting in a monotonous voice as an indication of depression and pessimism; will make those factors influence the product as a whole, because they are part of it.
When carrying out a communication, it is rarely only a question of the concrete matter. The words should also have an effect, to motivate the speaker to do a certain thing.
The Hamburg communications expert Friedemann Schulz von Thun(8), explains that, in any news, four messages or aspects are included:

1. The objective content, that what is being reported.
2. The personal revelation, that is to say, what is oneself communicates.
3. The appeal, that is to say, that what is required to animate the other.
4. The relationship, that which one thinks of the other one and the position with regards to him.

Let us suppose a case, you are comfortably seated in the living room. Your son comes in, and leaves the door open. You say: There is a draught. This is, in the first place, a verification (objective content); but, at the same time, it is communicating that he is cold (personal revelation); he would probably like his son to close the door (appeal), and possibly you are drawing his attention that he is not right to leave the door open (relationship). Now your son has the possibility of interpreting this in his ownway, what you could have meant, by saying "There is a draught". .
The conclusion we reach through this theory of communication is the following one: one should meditate on which is the most important aspect for the person when communicating with somebody and to express it directly. If he wants his son to close the door, he should say: "Close the door, please." This is a direct transmission of the message.

Subliminal messages

The subliminal message is governed by the idea that the conscious mind judges and the subconscious one acts with the memory database. The most famous example was the Popcorn Experiment, when a North American cinema inserted popcorn images, within the movie frames, that it was projecting. Through this action they were able to prove that unconsciously people perceived the desire to consume popcorn.
All movies provide some subliminal visual stimulus. The information received at the centre of the screen is picked up by the conscious mind, and a judgement is emitted on them before storing them. The information that comes from the edges of the screen, avoids the conscious mind and goes directly to the subconscious one without being judged, which generates a much deeper feeling regarding it. For this reason it is that when one looks at a movie on a large screen it is much more touching, more moving. The same film, seen on television, does not usually cause so much of an impact. This is because on the small screen all the information is received by the conscious mind, and it is judged before being stored in the subconscious.
The auditory subliminal messages work in the same way. When one receives information that enters the subconscious directly, this is not judged, it is only stored and one acts based on it.
The problems do not produce themselves with the memory but with the possibility of evoking. This implies that so that others remember what they have heard, one should be careful with the way in which the information is presented.
Behaviour (9) does not depends only of the conscious reactions, in which one had "time to think", but rather there are 0.5 seconds in which one can react, according to what our non conscious mind orders or (in other terms) decides, and which interests teaching so as to control those acts, it is that part of the brain not kept in mind, where programs act below the conscious one. This is the base of what is known as subliminal perception.

Unconscious Perception

Subliminal(10) perception already appeared in Demócrito's writings (400 B.C.) who said that "much of the perceptible things are not perceived by us". Plato spoke of this notion in his Timeo writing. Aristotle explained in a more detailed way the thresholds of the subliminal conscience in his Perva Naturalia, almost two thousand years ago, and he seems to be the first in suggesting that the non perceived stimuli in a conscious way, could well affect dreams.
Indeed, a conscious association can cause a subliminal perception buried deeply in the unconscious for weeks, months or maybe years after perception taking place. It is necessary to keep in mind the promise that makes this demonstrable theory, for all those that are in the business of controlling and influencing human behaviour.
The public media has concentrated on the development of the subliminal technique directed to the sensorial forces during the these last years.
The conscious perception operates within specific frequencies be it of light or sound. However, outside the reach of what is consciously perceived by sight and hearing, there are subliminal frequencies capable of being communicated. The information transmitted on these invisible frequencies is only perceived by the unconscious part of the human brain.
Due to that, many times there appear to be consumptions that are carried out as a consequence of a subliminal effect, because the message arrives to the subconscious and reacts at that level.
Summing up, what we have said, indicates that "one is not aware of the events at the moment they take place, but one does believe it is so".
The world is much richer than what is perceived in a conscious way. The best data enter through the unconscious mind, the problem is that most people deny their possibilities to see beyond, because culturally that which is not rational, is not considered "serious".
However, all the above-mentioned indicate that there is subliminal perception, and this influences on later behaviours, to be able to take advantage of the mental capacity and to control decisions, one needs to know the information that is incoming, not only in a conscious way, but also that which is being perceiving in the deep mind.
According to García Rodríguez "the attention is the exercise of only noticing an unitary part among the rich panorama offered to us by our perceptive world. Attention is an exercise of narrowing the conscience field, following a deepening of this one" (11).
There is information which is discarded, another which cannot be perceive (sensorial limit) and finally the incoming one that enters the mental processor which it leaves reinterpreted according to an own code.
Reality is perceived in this way the, according to the information which arrives, on which the non conscious mind has made its decision of what and how to interpret it.


The perceived (12) world is generally a mirror of the preconceived personal ideas and of the concerns.
Taking a trivial example, that of the saliva, if one accumulates some saliva in the mouth, one feels how the tongue is being lubricated as it moves toward the teeth, giving a non unpleasant feeling.
Then one takes a clean glass, spits inside it and drinks it. One perceives that this act of consuming something that until a moment ago was pleasant, becomes repulsive.
The matter is that perception and attitude towards the same thing, change drastically. What was something clean and natural has become, in that action outside the body, something dirty and unpleasant. It is not the saliva that has changed, it is only the interpretation made of it.
The development of a wide sensibility is an explicit goal that empowers communication capacity and at the same time the perceptive one, which notably rebounds in the understanding of the environment and in its own evolution.
On the other hand the human being has a series of limitations that restrict, and distort, the environment information. This gives as a result a certain addressing, to the perception which one has of it.
In this sense it is where emotions are related to perception, the perceived registration is filtered by the emotional valuation.
"Emotions (13), are those which in fact determine what we do, although we believe that we determine it rationally, reason only intervenes in the how we do it, that is to say in the procedure."
From a publicity point of view, you can create a psychological tendency towards a consumption, giving differential values to products that did not have a certain space, that is how we observe that trade marks are positioned and are displaced by others.

Subliminal influence

Subliminal influence is not only given in advertising(14) which in a brief time, could be captured consciously, continuously one receives influence from the messages received, even against one's own will; which many times go against the interests. They appear in diverse circumstances and not only when looking at a advertisement.

The sub mind is in permanent communication with the external world, without those communications coming out to the conscience.
The capacity of doing things without thinking is notorious, even activities that require a high cognitive demand.
Thus it is observed that consumers have a great tendency to select products due to "subconscious influences."
The term subliminal influences is used here to describe the sensorial forces of the human nervous system that surrounds it or they are suppress by the conscious conscience or, simpler, forces that communicate with the unconscious. Of course the term has common implications, such as brain washing, manipulation and other dishonest practices, scientifically, maybe it would be more appropriate to denominate it as subliminal reception, initial regulation, unconscious perception and sub perception .
Doubtlessly it could be thought that at present, in a modern world that depends and emerges from an atmosphere dominated by massive media, all those that do not know how to read and to understand the subliminal languages of symbolic illusion are illiterate from the functional point of view.
The industrial designers include subliminal meanings in such products as automobiles, soft drink bottles, lawn mowers, clothing, food containers, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, houses and household appliances, apparatuses, and practically everything made for the consumer of the commercial world of massive production.
For example, the packing industry a long time ago stopped to simply being the supplier of bottles, tubes and cartons in which something was safely and conveniently stored. Packers are at present symbolic image businessmen, that provide meaning and many times fictitious deceptions, of variety and value, to a multitude of competitive products.
A walk through any modern supertrade market will reveal that the containers of some articles that we consider of primordial necessity, are more expensive than its contents. The competition between consumption products has become rather a competition between symbols or competitive images than among the material values. And the fight to get the supremacy in the trade market, is based on the preference of the consumers' unconscious minds and not by means of their conscious state.

Visualization advertising effects

When examining visualization effect, these cause varied results in the consumers.
The importance invisualization is given by two basic elements:

1 - The product itself.
2 - What the message says.

1 - The product itself.
The consumer may feel attracted or not by what a product is in itself, by its existence, for the answer that the trade market gives of something which it knows that exists.
Advertising shows the trade mark, its objective, that is to say, all those active signs that act in the consumer.

2 - What the message says
The message can totally or partially erase the image of the product itself.
That is to say the discourse that is used so that the consumer receives the message, the way one wants him to, if it is transmitting the correct desire, or to see if the motivation for the product is very strong.
Using any persuasive method to influence on somebody's thought process, is called manipulation: it depends on the final result looked for. If the intention is to obtain a situation in which both parties win, motivation is used. If the intention is to win and that the other one loses, manipulation is used.

Perception process

There is no way of establishing precise expression limits, but each product consumption situation, goes through different phases, thus in the edible products, we find preparation, presentation, consumption and post - consumption, where each one of those phases should be conveniently transmitted, so that the consumer is convinced.
Many times the changes take place, not only due to the sense of the perceived expressions, but because the trade market takes charge to retransmit the situations through its own practitioners.
Particularly it is observed that in consumption decisions there is a retrade markable tendency of consumers' approach to each other.
In a conglomerate where communications are so speedy and crossed, the advertiser's mind cannot be isolated and can be influenced consciously or unconsciously, by situation(15).
Neurology and psychology studies have strongly supported the conclusion that the senses (including those that have not yet been discovered) operate in at least two perception levels. The information is gathered in what could be called cognitive or conscious level, in which each human being realizes consciously what is happening. Also simultaneous and continuous information is gathered at a subliminal level, level apparently not conscious of the data that reach the brain.

Message using the mental channel

The current contexto(16), is characterized by the crisis; this is so, in the organizational, institutional level in general and even at personal level.
This reality makes the whole way of acting to be reconsidered, the style of relationships with activities, with tasks and, fundamentally with learning.
When taking into account the perceptions considering the memory, we see that it becomes even more complicated when we keep in mind the conscious memory as much as the unconscious one. The information that is inside the memory, or storage area inside the brain, oscillates inside and outside the conscious thought with answers to the models of complex association, which seem to be pent-up or modulated by defence of perception or inhibition mechanisms.
Indeed, human beings remember what they want to remember and, in smaller or larger degree, they have the capacity to forget, to ignore or inhibit information that could cause them anxiety or annoyance.
Memory is related in an obscure way with the acceptable wisdom within a society or culture. Especially in the business world, it is believed that consumers have quality thought, as a consequence of the quantity of the up-to-date information they possess.
Businessmen are able to evoke a strong emotional relationship between, a product perceived before and all the stronger emotional stimuli, love (sex) and death, by means of firing subliminal imbuing instruments in the media. This object, results in consumption alteration.

Mental state

Consumers generally look behind each product for, service, communication, consumption, a mental state. And each one of them provides a certain mental state.
Mental states are those that sustain the behaviours, most of the advertisements place greater emphasis on the mental state that the product can provide, than in the characteristics of the product itself..
To convince and to sell somebody an idea or a decision, it is necessary to research which it is the mental state that that person wants to have, which greatly influences, since thoughts are the internal representations that each person has of each experience, object, or relationship which he has maintained with somebody. A person's mental state is the consequence of his thoughts. Which implies that to change a mental state it is necessary, in the first place, to change the thought.
Thought (17) acts when we are too immersed in the problem, since there is the danger that the thought folds wear away so much that they no longer allow a fresh perception or a mixture of different current idea.
The mental state is decisive in the election process, that the consumers carry out, because it causes the coherent behaviours with this mental state, since it acts at a deeper neurological level.
The increase of the desire of consuming something, leads to the worsening of perception.
To influence in the others(18), is a science and an art that depends fundamentally on the generation of thoughts which in turn impact on mental states, which in turn provoke behaviours.

Consumption motivations and resistances.

It is true that the trade market devours every new product that is launched, ; but, how long? For how long does this same product keep on being consumed?
Many times the influence in consumption is so strong that it is received as a result of the advertisements, which causes motivations to be generated in some cases and resistances in others.
Mass communication(19) uses subliminal techniques that induce the consumer to choose a product without him being entitled to discern between an unconscious election or by his own will.
Through them desires, necessities, fears and human being's anxieties, invading even, unconscious thought, are cruelly explored.
As a result of this, it is seen that salespersons "manipulate" the consumers' decisions, strengthening them according to the cases situations of motivations to reach more deeply into the human being's desires and to make him "see" the necessity of the consumption, for example through fashion, that uses economic growth and wealth as an essential instrument.
Subliminal phenomena are included in communication techniques by means of those millions of human beings handled and manipulated daily without being aware of it, being preys of, not thought of consumptions.
The basic reason of the existence of advertising is to sell; the advertisements sell the contents, to the desired public stratum, and it offers a platform that sells products and it backs the advertising media, advertising has as its objective, to sell, to make money or perish.

Subliminal messages

According to recent consumption studies it was determined that the increase in the consumption growth rate, in the developed countries, will be duplicated within the next quarter of a century,
In a world like this, affected by the population's growth and the extinction of resources, the capacity to differ between illusion and reality, every day has more and more important differences. It may possibly be because man ignores the existence of the unconscious perception role: subliminal knowledge that manipulate, direct and control human behaviour.
Subliminal knowledge directs and controls human behaviour. The industrial trade market "educates" consumers subtly, generating resistance in some products, constituting the structure of the so called, each one's way of life, planning the purchases and directing them toward a certain product or trade trade marks, e.g., if a mother uses a certain trade mark of canned milk, for a long time, it could happen that she moves away from that product that seemed so solid, due to an advertising effect, e.g., finding out that the it does not possess all the vitamin properties she had always imagined, even when the chemical composition of the product had not changed. That is to say she stopped perceiving what she believed of the product.
Conscious and unconscious reasons, are way beyond all the situations of human communication. The reasons are contained in all the messages. No form of human communication can be reasonably understood or evaluated without keeping in mind, the communicators' conscious as well as unconscious reasons.
The intricacy in transmission and reception of messages implies that each part (he who sends and he who receives) tacitly supposes that he it will gain some profit from the message. For maximum effectiveness, the message relates the reasons or the search of behaviour goals at both ends of the communication.
Any successful salesperson will confirm that a basic strategy consists in determining the reasons of purchases, especially those that pass the same presumed client consciously inadvertently, they are the most important. These unconscious reasons rarely involve only the quality or the price of a product. Much more frequently they are related to the client's necessities, such as social level, management, security or recognition. If a salesperson relates his product with those unconscious necessities, it establishes an excellent opportunity to carry out a sale.

Advertising and Public Relations

The massive media uses its public relations strategies with the objective of obtaining earnings.
They try to sell to their public, to social institutions and those who are in charge of doing their advertising, cannot survive as economic entities without maintaining the public that will attract the advertisers. Message content, writing styles, photographs, art, typography, etc., constitute the instruments that control the consumers' composition as much in quality as in size.

Advertising objective (20)

1 - Technical Efficiency
2 - Conceptual Unit
3 - Aesthetic Impact

1- Technical Efficiency, is when advertising integrates the visual / auditory senses. Although today mass media exploit those two sensorial forces of the brain, mainly sight and hearing, we will briefly review what is known about human sensorial capacities.

Aristotle explored, for the first time, the importance of our five basic senses: sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. His definitions ended up being theological dogmas (21) , that restricted the image of man himself, in a severe way fo, almost 2,000 years. During the Middle Ages, the concept of the five senses, was integrated within the scholastic philosophy, later it would appear in a religious ritual such as extreme unction, ceremony carried out by a priest when a person is about to die and in which the five senses are blessed. The diverse psychology schools of the 20th century still limited more the image of man himself when insisting that the senses were to be studied by parts. For example, many consider separately sight from taste, from hearing, etc.. Frequently the Asian specialists consider gratuitous this simplistic tentative of human body study; these erudites have been in an intellectual tradition that see man as an assemble of integrated sensorial forces in a natural way. The integrative human notion is of supreme importance for the traditions of Buddhist, Taoist, Confucian and Hinduism's thought. Only recently has the West obtained an integrative a non Aristotelian penetration, as to how human knowledge began to be developed, the world and man himself as an aspect of existential philosophy, of the general semantics and of Zen Buddhism.
In simple practical terms the idea can be demonstrated by means of how food is served in the Asian traditions, and how it is opposed to the Westerner way. In the East it is considered that all the senses are related with feeding. The appearance, or consistency or smell influences in the food flavour. Of course, the total feeding environment also influences the flavour, emotions, colour, temperature, sound, etc.. It is probable that thanks to Aristotle and to the institutions which use his studies as power instrument, it is frequently very difficult for Westerners to appreciate all that is sensually involved even in such a simple and routine experience as eating.
At present, the five senses concept is without an anachronic remedy. In general it is recognized that there are, in the human brain, at least thirty seven sensorial forces. As time passes other senses will be discovered and added to the list. Of the thirty seven senses, more than two dozens are related to the touch.
If one could say that human beings possess a sensorial force that supplies the brain with information, it could be the touch, the sensation or tactile experimentation. The human being simply cannot adapt himself and survive without the touch. This includes the real contact of touching, and to touch kinetically, because touch can be experienced by sight or by some other sensorial force. Kinetic examples could be a painting of a special texture which simulates the brain in the sensation of touching or feeling.
This complex of at least thirty seven separate sensorial forces, existing in the brain is very complicated, as these forces operate continuously and synchronously in a series of preferences that change mode constantly and in which, for a while, a sense or several senses, become determinant. But the human sensorial machine is much more complicated than what this suggests.
Thus we see that advertising pursues technical efficiency, which should be carefully worked on, in such way, that as much as transmission and perception are achieved in the expected way, making the product truly known to the client and that he consumes it.

2 - Conceptual Unit, consists on building a perfect internal sequence of the advertisement.

In a general sense, i.e., the advertisement should contain the message that satisfies the consumer's desires that it be in consonance with the moment, with the place, that the verbally transmitted message agree with the corporal one, i.e. the gestures, expression and corporal posture, agree with the words. E.g., it would be contradictory to have your arms crossed and to welcome somebody in friendly way; or if we say with a smile that we are very angry with somebody, a double message is being sent. If done this way the advertising would be wasted.

3-Aesthetic Impact, It refers to(22) the advertisement with original and attractive characteristics, that allows redundancy without saturation, it is of good taste, aesthetic and that prolongs its residual effects.

At present there begins to appear in an incipient way, the integration of a series of "intangible" variables that pass through the consumer's mind, that each consumer sees it in a different way, according to the development degree that he has in that differentiation.
"Consumerism", is in fashion i.e. people cohabit with the "use it and throw it away", they consume a great quantity of products and most of the times, unnecessary products or inadequately chosen, products that possibly satisfy necessities in a short or very short term and that as a result of this they deteriorate other human being's aspects, such as health, and the physical - spiritual integrity.
This research pursues to analyse the factors that are given in the messages, and that produce a convenient residual effect that pleases not only in a determined way a desire, but that it go further on, that it preserves the consumer's physical and spiritual body and that in the long run, it results in a personal benefit that in will add up to profit the whole organization.

The Media Influences

Things, are themselves and their relationships. For that reason it is an error to consider that present day man's mind works in the same way as that in other times. E.g., television does that, in a certain sense our imagination is more and more reproductive, as the images that are received through it, are so many and so heterogeneous, they put the spectator in contact with landscapes so distant and different that the result is not, a mere reflection of what appears on the screen. It has made that through the incessant information it has given way to the difference cult, which is what reigns in life, at present. But not only this, television has even altered our own notion of reality, when managing the form of things, without its matter, to play with the pure similarity of the real things. The very impression of reality can be the object staging that break in the discernment barriers.
With the television screen, the human mind absorbs for hours an image of the world and of life, exciting the minds of intellectuals, artists and writers, and also of the main scientific adventure characters.


Through advertising messages, the products are not those which change, but the perceptions of each one of the consumers, those changes go through each consumer's mind and each person today no longer thinks neither reacts like in other times.
There are many factors of communicational strategies that influence so that each consumer has his own perception; for that reason one of them is through subliminal advertising, the one that makes that imagination to be more and more reproductive; the images deposited by the media in the brain, are so many and so heterogeneous that the consumer receives a great variety of opportunities. At present, you can manage the offer of products, bringing near those the consumer wants, researching within his own mind. With the specific segments, object of this research, they all previously go through a mental construction, in many cases manipulated and in other no, but it is determined that necessarily all bring these instances closer, previous to a consumption decision.


1MELNIK, Luis "La Publicidad Subliminal", Editorial Sudamericana, 1999. Page 105
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5 BRAIDOT, NÉSTOR "Inteligencia Empresaria" Page 24 of 32. Unpublished Work (1998)
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10 ORNSTEIN, Robert. "La Evolución de la Conciencia". Los Límites del Pensamiento Racional" Edit. Española. EMECE Editores S. A. (1944)
11GARCIA RODRIGUEZ, Fernando. "El Sistema Humano y su Mente" Diaz de Santos. 1st Edition 1992
12 CLAXTON, Guy. "Cerebro de liebre, Mente de tortuga" Edic. Urano S. A. Barcelona
13 BRAIDOT, Néstor P. "Inteligencia Empresaria" Page 2 of 24. Unpublished Work (1998)
14 KEY, Wilson Bryan "Seducción Subliminal" Edit. Vergara / Diana - BuenosAires Page 54 s s.
15 BOORSTIN, Daniel "Problemas nuevos de la Democracia" Page51
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17 CLAXTON, Guy. "Cerebro de liebre, Mente de tortuga" Page104
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20 WILENSKY, Alberto, "Política de Negocios" Machi Edit. - Pages 204 and s. s.
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